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Kidney Injury

αGST (Alpha Glutathione S-Transferase)

Analyte: Alpha-Glutathione S-Transferase
Specimen Type: Urine; first morning void preserved with stabilizing buffer
Biological or Clinical Significance: Of significance for renal diagnostics, alpha GST is found in the proximal tubule region of the kidney, whereas the other common isoform, pi GST, is confined mainly to the distal tubules. Events that precipitate proximal tubule damage may cause increased release of alpha GST into urine. Evidence indicates that urinary GST has value as a…

Creatinine, Urine

Analyte: Creatinine
Specimen Type: Urine *see note
Biological or Clinical Significance: Creatinine is a waste product formed by the spontaneous dehydration of body creatine. Most of the body creatine is found in muscle tissue where it is present as creatinine phosphate and serves as a high-energy storage reservoir for conversion to adenosine triphosphate. The rate of creatinine formation is fairly constant with about 2 percent of…

CTGF (Connective Tissue Growth Factor)

Analyte: Connective Tissue Growth Factor
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance: CTGF, a member of the CCN protein family, is relevant in many physiological and pathological processes.  Both clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that CTGF is overexpressed in fibrotic human liver and in experimental animal models of liver fibrogenesis.  CTGF is detectable in various human fluids (serum, plasma, and urine) and can potentially provide information…

IL-18 (Interleukin 18), Urine

Analyte: Interleukin-18
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance: Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a 18kDa novel cytokine which is identified as a costimulatory factor for production of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) in response to toxic shock. It shares functional similarities with IL-12. IL-18 is synthesized as a precursor 24kDa molecule without a signal peptide and must be cleaved to produce an active molecule. IL-1 β…

Protein (Total Protein), Urine

Analyte: Protein, total
Specimen Type: Urine without preservatives**
Biological or Clinical Significance: Urine is formed by ultrafiltration of plasma across the glomerular capillary wall.  Proteins with a relative molecular mass over 40,000 are almost completely retained, while smaller substances may enter the glomerular filtrate.  Most of the protein that freely passes through the glomerulus is reabsorbed in the tubule and catabolized. Urine protein measurements are used for the diagnosis…
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