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Metabolic Disease

Beta 3-hydroxybutyrate

Analyte: Beta 3-hydroxybutyrate
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance: The term ketone body describes 3 molecules: acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Betahydroxybutyrate (also referred to as 3-hydroxybutyrate or 3-HB) is the result of acetoacetate reduction. Ketone bodies are fundamental for the metabolic homeostasis during periods of prolonged starvation. The brain cannot use fatty acids for energy production and usually depends on glucose to meet its…

C-Peptide of Insulin

Analyte: C-Peptide of Insulin
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma, P-800 Plasma (or equivalent)
Biological or Clinical Significance: C-peptide of insulin is a metabolic by-product produced during the activation of insulin. Insulin is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for the storage and production of carbohydrates. It is synthesized as part of a larger inactive protein, proinsulin. A rise in plasma glucose…

DPPIV Activity

Analyte: DPPIV Activity
Specimen Type: EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance: DPP-IV (dipeptidyl peptidase-4, DPP-IV, CD26) plays a major role in glucose metabolism.   It is a member of the class or proteases called prolyl peptidases, which cleave proteins after proline residues.  It is responsible for the degradation of incretins such as GLP-1.  Furthermore, it appears to work as a suppressor in the development of cancer and…

Glucose, Urine

Analyte: Glucose
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance: Glucose is the major carbohydrate present in the peripheral blood.  Oxidation of glucose is the major source of cellular energy in the body.  Glucose derived from dietary sources is converted to glycogen for storage in the liver and muscle or to fatty acids for storage in adipose tissue. The most frequent cause of hyperglycemia is…

MDA (Malondialdehyde)

Analyte: Malondialdehyde
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance: Lipid peroxidation is a well-defined mechanism of cellular damage in animals and plants. Lipid peroxides are unstable indicators of oxidative stress in cells that decompose to form more complex and reactive compounds such as Malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), natural bi-products of lipid peroxidation. Oxidative modification of lipids can be induced in vitro by a…
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