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Oxidative Stress

ADMA (Asymmetric Dimethylarginine)

Analyte: Asymmetric Dimethyl Arginine
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase. It is formed during proteolysis of methylated proteins and removed by renal excretion or metabolic degradation by the enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Several cell types, including human endothelial and tubular cells, are capable of synthesizing and metabolizing ADMA. Elevated ADMA concentrations in the blood are…

Apolipoprotein A-I

Analyte: Apolipoprotein AI
Specimen Type: Serum (preferred), EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance: Apolipoproteins are components of plasma lipoproteins. They play a role in the structure, function, and metabolism of lipoproteins. Apo A-I, the predominant protein, constitutes approximately 60% of the protein in HDL. Apo A-I is the active component of HDL which is responsible for removal of cholesterol from the aortic smooth muscle cells through its activation…

Apolipoprotein A-I, Urine

Analyte: Apolipoprotein AI
Specimen Type: Urine
Biological or Clinical Significance: Human Apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I) comprises about 70% of the high-density lipoproteins (HDL) protein mass, while apo A-II makes up another 15 – 20%.  Apo A-I, a 243-amino acid molecule that contains a series of highly homologous amphipathic (polar and non-polar properties) alpha-helices, is a 28-kDa single polypeptide that lacks glycosylation or disulfide linkages.  About…

OxLDL (Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein)

Analyte: Oxidized LDL
Specimen Type: Serum, EDTA Plasma
Biological or Clinical Significance: Lipoprotein measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of lipid disorders (such as dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus), atherosclerosis, and various liver and renal diseases. The oxidative conversion of low density lipoproteins (LDL) to oxidized low density lipoproteins (oxidized LDL) is now generally considered to be a key event in the biological process that initiates…

Thioredoxin

Analyte: Thioredoxin
Specimen Type: Serum
Biological or Clinical Significance: Thioredoxins (Trx) are small, multi-functional proteins with oxido-reductase activity and are ubiquitous in essentially all living cells. Trx contains a redox-active disulfide/dithiol group within the conserved Cys-Gly-Pro-Cys active site. The two cysteine residues in the conserved active centers can be oxidized to form intramolecular disulfide bonds. Reduction of the active site disulfide in oxidized Trx…
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