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IP-10 (interferon-gamma inducible protein 10 kDa), also known as CXCL10, was originally indentified as an IFN-γ-inducible gene. It is induced in a variety of cells in response to IFN-γ and LPS. In contrast to other CXC chemokines, IP-10 has no chemotactic activity for neutrophils. It is a pleiotropic molecule that appears to target activated T cells and monocytes. IP-10 inhibits bone marrow colony formation and angiogenensis. It can also stimulate NK and T cell migration, regulate T cell maturation and modulate adhesion molecule expression.
IP-10 expression has been associated with HIV infection. It can contribute to the accumulation of activated T cells in the cerebrospinal fluid compartment in HIV-1 infected individuals. The retroviral transactivator, HIV-1 Tat, is a potent inducer of IP-10 expression in astrocytes.
IP-10 expression has also been shown to be significantly elevated in astrocytes within the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Astrocytes expressing IP-10 are commonly associated with senile plaques.
The IP-10 immunoassay is a solid-phase ELISA designed to measure human IP-10 in cell culture supernates, serum, plasma and saliva. This assay employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique.