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Interleukin 1 (IL-1) includes two distinct proteins, IL-1α and IL-1β, that play central roles in acute and chronic inflammation, both locally and systemically. Human IL-1β is synthesized as a procytokine (269 amino acid) that is cleaved by IL-1β -converting enzyme to mature IL-1β (153 amino acid, 17 kDa) plus a prosegment.
IL-1β is produced primarily by monocytes and macrophages but also by astrocytes, oligodendroglia, adrenal cortical cells, NK cells, endothelial cells, keratinocytes, megakaryocytes, platelets, neurons, neutrophils, osteoblasts, Schwann cells, trophoblasts, T cells, and fibroblasts. The most extensively studied function of IL-1β is initiation of inflammation. Bacterial endotoxin or a variety of non-microbial inflammatory substances induces production of IL-1, which is released into the local environment.
IL-1 is associated with bone formation and remodeling, insulin secretion, appetite regulation, fever induction, neuronal phenotype development, and IGF/GH physiology.
The IL-1β assay is a solid-phase ELISA that employs the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay principle. *Note: Refrigerated stability is 5 days for serum and is limited/ustable for EDTA plasma.