Technical Strengths

  • Specific, total, and functional antibody measurement: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbant Assay (ELISA), Neutralizing Antibodies (nAb), Hemagglutination Assay (HAI), Anti-Drug-Antibodies (ADA) 
  • Immune checkpoint characterization
  • Cytokine measurement: ELISA, Enzyme-Linked Immuno Spot (ELISPOT), Multiplex (Cytometric Bead Array [CBA]), Meso Scale Discovery (MSD), Luminex, Intercellular Cytokine Staining (ICS)
  • Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) or organ resident cells
  • Cell phenotyping
  • Cell proliferation
  • Delayed type hypersensitivity
  • Opsono-phagocytosis
  • Cell-mediated cytotoxicity
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Viral load and bacterial load
  • Cell infiltration and tissues
  • Immunohistochemistry (IHC)

Cellular Immunology

ELISPOT/Flurospot

  • Humoral response
  • Detection of antibody secreting cells (ASC) — IgG/IgA
  • Cell-mediated immune response
  • Cytokines
  • Cytotoxic T-cell response

Flow Cytometry (up to 18 colors)

Immunophenotyping

  • Qualify the Populations Directly (Differential)
  • In blood/Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMC)
  • In lymphoid organ
  • In spleen
  • In biopsy or tumor resection (infiltrating cells)

Extracellular (Markers)

  • B-cells/T-cells/Natural Killer (NK) cells
  • Monocytic/Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)
  • Neutrophils/eosinophils/basophils
  • Tumor associated macrophages

Status (Markers)

  • Activation (CD44, CD25, CD69)
  • Immune checkpoint (PD-1, CTLA-4, Tim-3, LAG-3, TIGIT, CD40L)
  • Memory (CD44, CD62L, KLRG1, CD127, CCR7), (CD45RA, CD27, CD28, CCR7)
  • Antigen specificity (tetramer)

Cell Functionality
Intracellular (Markers)

  • Cytokine profile Th1/Th2/Th17 (IL-2, TNFa, IFNg, IL-13…)
  • Treg (FoxP3)
  • Tfh (Bcl-6, CXCR5, ICOS)
  • Proliferation (KI-67)
  • Cytotoxic (Granzyme B, Perforin, CD107a)

Intracellular (DNA)

  • Proliferation (CFSE, BrdU)
  • Apoptosis (Annexin-V)

Intracellular Cytokine Stain (ICS)